81: In Hospital Cardiac Arrest ECMO Inclusion Criteria with Joe Tonna

In this podcast, Joe Tonna tells us how to approach hypothermia with ECPR patients.  He also goes through his paper RESCUE-IHCA giving us an immediate way to prognosticate in patients to use of ECMO or not.

Hypothermia – Resuscitation

Nakashima T, Ogata S, Noguchi T, Nishimura K, Hsu CH, Sefa N, Haas NL, Bĕlohlávek J, Pellegrino V, Tonna JE, Haft J, Neumar RW. Association of intentional cooling, achieved temperature and hypothermia duration with in-hospital mortality in patients treated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: An analysis of the ELSO registry. Resuscitation. 2022 Aug;177:43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.06.022. Epub 2022 Jul 3. PMID: 35788020.

Hypothermia Meta-Analysis

Duan J, Ma Q, Zhu C, Shi Y, Duan B. eCPR Combined With Therapeutic Hypothermia Could Improve Survival and Neurologic Outcomes for Patients With Cardiac Arrest: A Meta-Analysis. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 Aug 13;8:703567. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.703567. PMID: 34485403; PMCID: PMC8414549.

In Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ECPR Inclusion

Tonna JE, Selzman CH, Girotra S, Presson AP, Thiagarajan RR, Becker LB, Zhang C, Rycus P, Keenan HT; American Heart Association Get With the Guidelines–Resuscitation Investigators. Resuscitation Using ECPR During In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (RESCUE-IHCA) Mortality Prediction Score and External Validation. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Feb 14;15(3):237-247. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2021.09.032. Epub 2022 Jan 12. PMID: 35033471; PMCID: PMC8837656.

78: ECMO in South Africa

This month we are honored to have Neville Vlok on the show.  Neville has been one of the key physicians pushing for ECPR in South Africa.  In this episode, we explore what medicine and resuscitation looks like in South Africa, how ECMO has been utilized, and whether ECMO even makes sense in developing countries.

 

Vlok N, Hedding KA, Van Dyk MA. Saved by the pump: Two successful resuscitations utilising emergency department-initiated extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2021 Mar 2;111(3):208-210. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.2021.v111i3.15366. PMID: 33944740.

76: Netherlands Pre-Hospital ECPR Program

The Netherlands has undertaken a monumental task: provide ECPR to 100% of their country.  Dinis Reis Miranda and his team have put in place an unbelievably organized and robust project to improve the survival from cardiac arrest for their entire country.  Listen to Dinis explain about the project, their struggles, and this world changing experiment going on right now in the Netherlands.

 

Here is their projects website and some of its content – https://onscenetrial.com/

 

 

 

 

 

74: Do 70 year old’s deserve ECPR? A Deep Dive into the Economics of ECPR

Have you ever pondered whether all the work over ECPR was worth it?  Even if you did save a few patients, does this really make sense from a societal standpoint?  Am I giving up my life on a project where my efforts could be better elsewhere?  Then this episode is for you (and me).  This month I talk with Melissa Barnes and Ryan Coute about the economics of cardiac arrest and specifically ECPR.  Ryan has just published a great paper in Resuscitation on the costs on OHCA.  We will talk with Ryan and Melissa Barnes, ECMO manager at Sharp Memorial Hospital about benefits and costs to society of OHCA and ECMO.  I learned several pearls from Ryan’s paper as well as a paper by Grosse that Ryan references.  Below are the links to both papers with a couple graphs to try to wrap your head around.

Coute

Image

 

Coute

Economic loss of productivity of OHCA

Grosse

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688510/

 

 

73:The Hyperinvasive Trial with Jan Belohlavek

Wait…ECPR works?

To the believers, this has been a foregone conclusion.  To the rest of the world, the question of whether ECPR improves cardiac arrest survivorship has been in question. Jan Belohlavek and his Prague colleagues just presented their 8 year data showing better outcomes in cardiac arrest patients that got a grouped therapy of early transport, prehospital targeted temperature management, mechanical chest compressions, and ECMO over those who got a traditional resuscitation.  This study is key and contrasts to the Oslo study that we reviewed just a few months earlier.  Jan speaks with Zack about the details of the results and what were the keys to their success.

 

 

Hyperinvasive trial study proposal – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492121/

Jan’s slides on Hyperinvasive Results

64: Contraindicated??? – Long Live the Aortic Dissection with Garrett Sterling

Aortic Dissection is a contraindication for ECMO….or is it?  In this episode, Zack Shinar and Garrett Sterling discuss the sticky topic of ECMO for aortic dissection.  They discuss a recent case where Joe Bellezzo, Karl Limmer, Craig Larsen, and the entire Sharp team save a Type A aortic dissection with cardiac arrest.

Zack and Garrett traverse the details around ECMO in aortic dissection ranging from VA ECMO in ECPR to VVECMO for pulmonary edema.  They go through the literature on the subject and make some conclusions based on this data. The ultimate question – “Is Aortic Dissection a Contraindication for ECMO?”

Joe’s interview of Michael – Great to hear his memory of the event.

Michael’s podcast on his experience – The Heart of the Matter

 

 

Hou XT, Sun YQ, Zhang HJ, Zheng SH, Liu YY, Wang JG. Femoral artery

cannulation in Stanford type A aortic dissection operations. Asian Cardiovasc

Thorac Ann. 2006 Feb;14(1):35-7. PubMed PMID: 16432116.

 

Kelly C, Ockerse P, Glotzbach JP, Jedick R, Carlberg M, Skaggs J, Morgan DE.

Transesophageal echocardiography identification of aortic dissection during

cardiac arrest and cessation of ECMO initiation. Am J Emerg Med. 2019

Jun;37(6):1214.e5-1214.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.02.039. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

PubMed PMID: 30862393.

 

Yukawa T, Sugiyama K, Miyazaki K, Tanabe T, Ishikawa S, Hamabe Y. Treatment of

a patient with acute aortic dissection using extracorporeal cardiopulmonary

resuscitation after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a case report. Acute Med

Surg. 2017 Dec 19;5(2):189-193. doi: 10.1002/ams2.324. eCollection 2018 Apr.

PubMed PMID: 29657734; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5891112

61: Jason Bartos – ECPR Redefined

Jason Bartos and his crew at the University

Image result for university of minnesota cardiology"

of Minnesota have revolutionized the concept of ECPR for out of hospital cardiac arrests.  His crew are interventional cardiologists who take OHCA straight to the cardiac cath lab.  They have initiate times of around 6-8 minutes and have neurologically intact survival rates higher than 30%.  Below are two of Jason’s recent papers which every person who considers themselves an ECPR fan should pour over with a fine-toothed comb.  There is so much in these papers.  We split this interview into two pieces because there is so many pearls in it.

 

Outcomes

Resuscitation paper – 48% survival in 100 patients

Circulation paper 2020– 33% vs. 23% ALPS

  • Cohort who had VF/VT and one shock vs. a cohort who had VF/VT and failed to ROSC at the scene, in the ambulance, and then all the way to the hospital.
  • OHCA – > Straight to the Cath lab –> Get on ECMO –> Go to CCU under Cards care.
  • Inclusion criteria – Vf/vt, lactate <18, paO2 >50,ETCO2>10

 

References:

Bartos JA, Grunau B, Carlson C, Duval S, Ripeckyj A, Kalra R, Raveendran G,
John R, Conterato M, Frascone RJ, Trembley A, Aufderheide TP, Yannopoulos D.
Improved Survival with Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Despite
Progressive Metabolic Derangement Associated with Prolonged Resuscitation.
Circulation. 2020 Jan 3. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.042173. [Epub ahead of
print] PubMed PMID: 31896278.

Bartos JA, Carlson K, Carlson C, Raveendran G, John R, Aufderheide TP,
Yannopoulos D. Surviving refractory out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation
cardiac arrest: Critical care and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management.
Resuscitation. 2018 Nov;132:47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.08.030. Epub
2018 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 30171974.

60: ECPR 2.0 with Scott Weingart

     We’ve had some recent episodes on ECMO physiology.  Today’s episode focuses on the differences between ECMO physiology in the patient in cardiogenic shock versus the one in cardiac arrest. Scott Weingart talks with Zack about how the difference between these two patient populations is HUGE!  Scott also mentions details about cannulation and some critical post ECMO initiation pearls.

 

 

 

 

ECPR 2.0

The Patient
1. OOH Cardiac Arrest Patients are Different

Cannulation
2. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Placement
3. Wire choices
4. Wire Location Verification
5. Small arterial cannulae
6. Simpler Circuits

Post-Pump Critical Care
7. Find the Injuries
8. Mandatory leg perfusion
9. Lower Anticoagulation Goals
10. Lower Flow Goals
11. Try to avoid venting – Truby et al. PMID:28422817, less is more
12. Understanding Cardiac Prognostication / Stunning
13. Understanding Neuro Prognostication
14. Protection/Ownership
15. In it for the Long Haul

 

51 – Proximal Balloon Occlusion for Cardiac Arrest

#tbs19 The Big Sick—-  You’ve heard of ECMO for cardiac arrest- utilizing a mechanical pump to aid in perfusion of the coronaries.  What if you can’t do ECMO?  What if your resources are such that simply can’t lug a 10 kilogram machine out into the field?  Well, Jostein Brede may have something for you to consider.  He and several other places worldwide are on the forefront of using a REBOA catheter to occlude the proximal aorta during chest compressions in hopes that coronary perfusion pressure increases.  This would subsequently improve chance of return of spontaneous circulation and overall survivorship.  Maybe this is the band-aid that can be used in austere environments like rural Norway where the temperatures are extreme, the people are sparse, but the physicians are motivated.  12

1.
Daley J, Morrison JJ, Sather J, Hile L. The role of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) as an adjunct to ACLS in non-traumatic cardiac arrest. T. 2017;35(5):731-736. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2017.01.010
2.
Aslanger E, Golcuk E, Oflaz H, et al. Intraaortic balloon occlusion during refractory cardiac arrest. A case report. R. 2009;80(2):281-283. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.10.017

EDECMO 48: When Should I Transport a Cardiac Arrest?

This part two of August 2018.  We are now tackling the difficult question of when to transport cardiac arrests if I have ECMO available?  Brian Grunau is an expert in this question.  Brian has become a giant in the world of ECMO.  His research, leadership and experience have pushed the Canadian ECPR contingency to the forefront.   Brian gives us some insight on what factors I should consider and when should I transport.1

1.
Grunau B, Reynolds J, Scheuermeyer F, et al. Relationship between Time-to-ROSC and Survival in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest ECPR Candidates: When is the Best Time to Consider Transport to Hospital? P. 2016;20(5):615-622. doi:10.3109/10903127.2016.1149652