49 – You Can’t Spell REBOA without the ER – Endovascular Resuscitation of the Trauma Patient – Zaf Qasim

In this episode, Zack Shinar interviews Zaf Qasim about the recent controversies with ACEP and ACS about who can do REBOA.  Zaf is one of the world's experts on REBOA and he's an ER doc!  Zaf works at the University of Pennsylvania, trained in London

as well as Shock Trauma in Baltimore and teaches at Reanimate.  When you come to the essence of this episode, the question is what is the emergency physician's role in the trauma resuscitation?  Both Zaf and Zack agree; we need to be the resuscitationist in the trauma suite.  We need to manage the airway and then quickly take over the arterial and venous access, interpret the transduced pressures, manage the massive transfusion protocol and be ready to insert the REBOA catheter while the trauma surgeon is involved with the left chest, the source of bleeding and where the next destination for this patient will be.

EDECMO 47: ECMO Donazione: Organ Transplantation with Velia Antonini

Over this last year we have had episodes on organ donation and decision to transport.  This month we are revisiting two topics with two amazing people in two separate episodes.  Here, I interviewed Velia Marta Antonini.   Velia works in Italy where several of the great ECMO donation papers have originated.  She explains why this research is coming from Italy, what the process looks like, and the implications of this for other countries.  Check out her slides below.

 

 

 

Here are Velia's slides on the subject

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EDECMO 46: Wire Assistant

Well, it only took us seven years to figure this one out.  The wire assistant has been the key advancement of 2018 for placement of ECMO cannulas.  In this episode, Zack and Joe talk through this process after an  interview with Alyssa Baldini.  Alyssa was one of our first true wire assistants and has been instrumental in getting cannulas in faster and safer.  We discuss how the wire assistant aids in sterility and getting the artery on the first stick.  Bottom line – train someone at your shop to be an expert wire assistant.

EDECMO 45: ECMO in Sepsis

In this episode, Zack talks with Heidi Dalton about ECMO use in Sepsis.  This is another controversial area with pediatric literature showing strong results while the adult results have been less impressive.  Heidi has been a key figure in both adult and pediatric ECMO.  She is the former chair of the yearly ELSO conference.  She is a professor at both George Washington University and Virginia Commonwealth University.  Her background is in pediatric critical care. She currently works at INOVA in Virginia where she is the director of adult and pediatric ECMO.

Sepsis has been thought to be a contraindication to ECMO use secondary to the pro-inflammatory nature of ECMO and potential to harbor infection.  Recent research is certainly controversial with adult studies showing low survival in septic shock and sepsis as a cause of arrest.  As with much of ECMO literature, the problem is with the denominator – What is the expected survival of these patients?  The follow up question becomes what effort is prudent for these low survival rates?  The sepsis cohort tend to be younger and potential for long term survival is high.  The question remains should we be utilizing ECMO for sepsis?1–9

1.
Maclaren G, Butt W, Best D, Donath S, Taylor A. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory septic shock in children: one institution’s experience. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007;8(5):447-451. [PubMed]
2.
Datzmann T, Träger K. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cytokine adsorption. J. 2018;10(S5):S653-S660. doi:10.21037/jtd.2017.10.128
3.
Perdue SM, Poore BJ, Babu AN, Stribling WK. Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in severe septic shock with associated acute cardiomyopathy. J. 2018;33(1):50-52. doi:10.1111/jocs.13508
4.
von Bahr V, Hultman J, Eksborg S, Frenckner B, Kalzén H. Long-Term Survival in Adults Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure and Sepsis*. C. 2017;45(2):164-170. doi:10.1097/ccm.0000000000002078
5.
Millar J, Fanning J, McDonald C, McAuley D, Fraser J. The inflammatory response to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): a review of the pathophysiology. Crit Care. 2016;20(1):387. [PubMed]
6.
Choi M, Ha S, Kim H, Park S, Han S, Lee S. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Septic Shock. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103(4):1246-1253. [PubMed]
7.
Tramm R, Ilic D, Davies A, Pellegrino V, Romero L, Hodgson C. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD010381. [PubMed]
8.
Park T, Yang J, Jeon K, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory septic shock in adults. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;47(2):e68-74. [PubMed]
9.
Sharma A, Weerwind P, Maessen J. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation in adult patients with refractory septic shock. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;147(4):1441-1442. [PubMed]

EDECMO 44: Bob Bartlett: Peristaltic Pumps, Hollow Fibers, and the History of ECMO

1

In this episode, Zack Shinar interviews Dr. Bob Bartlett from the University of Michigan.  Dr. Bartlett has revolutionized the world with his leadership and innovation from the very beginnings of ECMO.  Zack and Bob discuss the history of ECMO and the prior use of roller pumps and bubble oxygenators.  They go on to describe the advantages of centrifugal pumps and hollow fiber oxygenators.  Additionally, they talk about PMP (polymethylpentene)-coated membranes inside oxygenators and their improved ability to safely oxygenate blood.  They discuss anticoagulation and how Bob believes that direct thrombin inhibitors are superior.  They wrap it up with a discussion on the future of ECMO and how peristaltic pumps have some significant advantages2.

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3,4

1.
Perchinsky M, Long W, Hill J, Parsons J, Bennett J. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support with heparin-bonded circuitry in the resuscitation of massively injured trauma patients. Am J Surg. 1995;169(5):488-491. [PubMed]
2.
Bartlett RH. Esperanza. A. 2017;63(6):832-843. doi:10.1097/mat.0000000000000697
3.
Ali AA, Downey P, Singh G, et al. Rat model of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J. 2014;12(1):37. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-37
4.
Spurlock DJ, Raney DN, Fracz EM, Mazur DE, Bartlet RH, Haft JW. In Vitro Testing of a Novel Blood Pump Designed for Temporary Extracorporeal Support. A. February 2012:1. doi:10.1097/mat.0b013e318245d356

EDECMO 43: The Cutdown

The Cutdown Approach to ECMO Cannula Insertion with Alice Hutin, Lionel Lamhaut, and Zack Shinar

In this episode,  Alice Hutin of the Paris SAMU talks about the modified cutdown approach to cannula insertion.  She is an emergency physician who is one of four physicians who cannulates on the pre-hospital ECMO ambulance.  She describes the process of their modified cutdown.  We are holding off on written descriptions and pictures of the procedure pending Alice's publication so you will just have to listen!!!! We'll post the pictures soon!  Until then, here is a youtube segment showing a femoral cutdown -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzu7cU3YoXo

 

Another recent publication by Alice:

Hutin A, Lamhaut L, Lidouren F, Kohlhauer M, Mongardon N, Carli P, Berdeaux A, Ghaleh B, Tissier R. Early Coronary Reperfusion Facilitates Return of Spontaneous Circulation and Improves Cardiovascular Outcomes After Ischemic Cardiac Arrest and Extracorporeal Resuscitation in Pigs. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Dec 22;5(12). pii: e004588. doi: 1. PubMed PMID: 28007740; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5210433

1.
Hutin A, Lamhaut L, Lidouren F, et al. Early Coronary Reperfusion Facilitates Return of Spontaneous Circulation and Improves Cardiovascular Outcomes After Ischemic Cardiac Arrest and Extracorporeal Resuscitation in Pigs. J. 2016;5(12):e004588. doi:10.1161/jaha.116.004588

EDECMO 42: Organ Transplantation On ECMO

In this episode, we tackle the subject of organ transplantation on ECMO.  2017 featured several articles showing the efficacy of ECMO for organ transplantation.  In Italy, 56% of total potential patients were successfully transplanted.  The success of these transplants have been comparable to patients not on ECMO.  Zack Shinar interviews Lionel Lamhaut, ECMO specialist from Paris, and Cyrus Olsen, ethicist from the University of Scranton, to dive into some of the deeper questions including financial implications, ethical angles, and research extrapolations.  Join Zack, Lionel and Cy at Big Sick 18 (bigsick18.org) in Zermatt Switzerland on February 7-9th,, 2018!!

 

1: Christopher DA, Woodside KJ. Expanding the Donor Pool: Organ Donation After
Brain Death for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients. Crit Care Med. 2017
Oct;45(10):1790-1791. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002633. PubMed PMID: 28915178.

2: Bronchard R, Durand L, Legeai C, Cohen J, Guerrini P, Bastien O. Brain-Dead
Donors on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Crit Care Med. 2017
Oct;45(10):1734-1741. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002564. PubMed PMID: 28640022.

3: Casadio MC, Coppo A, Vargiolu A, Villa J, Rota M, Avalli L, Citerio G. Organ
donation in cardiac arrest patients treated with extracorporeal CPR: A single
centre observational study. Resuscitation. 2017 Sep;118:133-139. doi:
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 28596083.

4: Dalle Ave AL, Bernat JL. Donation after brain circulation determination of
death. BMC Med Ethics. 2017 Feb 23;18(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s12910-017-0173-1.
PubMed PMID: 28228145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5322624.

5: Larsson M, Forsman P, Hedenqvist P, Östlund A, Hultman J, Wikman A, Riddez L,
Frenckner B, Bottai M, Wahlgren CM. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves
coagulopathy in an experimental traumatic hemorrhagic model. Eur J Trauma Emerg
Surg. 2017 Oct;43(5):701-709. doi: 10.1007/s00068-016-0730-1. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
PubMed PMID: 27815579; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5629226.

6: Dalle Ave AL, Shaw DM, Gardiner D. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation or uncontrolled donation after the
circulatory determination of death following out-of-hospital refractory cardiac
arrest-An ethical analysis of an unresolved clinical dilemma. Resuscitation. 2016
Nov;108:87-94. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.07.003. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
Review. PubMed PMID: 27449821.

7: Fan X, Chen Z, Nasralla D, Zeng X, Yang J, Ye S, Zhang Y, Peng G, Wang Y, Ye
Q. The organ preservation and enhancement of donation success ratio effect of
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in circulatory unstable brain death donor.
Clin Transplant. 2016 Oct;30(10):1306-1313. doi: 10.1111/ctr.12823. Epub 2016 Sep
5. PubMed PMID: 27460305.

8: Jasseron C, Lebreton G, Cantrelle C, Legeai C, Leprince P, Flecher E,
Sirinelli A, Bastien O, Dorent R. Impact of Heart Transplantation on Survival in
Patients on Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation at Listing in
France. Transplantation. 2016 Sep;100(9):1979-87. doi:
10.1097/TP.0000000000001265. PubMed PMID: 27306536.

9: Migliaccio ML, Zagli G, Cianchi G, Lazzeri C, Bonizzoli M, Cecchi A, Anichini
V, Gensini GF, Peris A. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in brain-death organ
and tissues donors: a single-centre experience. Br J Anaesth. 2013
Oct;111(4):673-4. doi: 10.1093/bja/aet323. PubMed PMID: 24027145.

EDECMO Episode 41 is REPOSTED

The original post for EDECMO 41 had to be permanently removed from the internet (for reasons beyond our control!!!) but its back. Click this link to take you to the new and improved (and HIPAA-compliant!!) episode: EDECMO 41 – The 3 stages of ECMO – Diane's Story

EDECMO 40: EROCA – The trial that asks “Should ER Docs Initiate ECPR?”

 

EROCA – University of Michigan – Gunnerson/Shinar

Should Emergency Physicians initiate ECMO on arresting patients?  That is the question that Kyle Gunnerson from the University of Michigan (UMich) is asking with their new trial – EROCA.  UMich has had a robust ECMO program for over 30 years and recently they have received a grant to fund an out of hospital cardiac arrest protocol for emergency physician initiated ECPR.  In this episode, Zack asks Kyle how this trial is being undertaken with key side points on how to start a program, how to train the personnel, and how to circumnavigate the many roadblocks we commonly face in the development of an ECMO program.  They talk about the limitations of running a trial with physicians with no prior experience in ECPR initiation as well as the novel resuscitation strategies that UMich is deploying in all of their cardiac arrest patients.

 

2016 ECMO CPT Codes, RVUs, and MediCare Reimbursement

Ok, so we just crashed an arrested patient onto ECMO and he is going to the cath lab. Now, how do I document the procedure again?  What was the CPT for percutanous cannulation for VA-ECMO?  Does my billing company even know?

Bookmark this page for future quick reference of the current CPT codes, RVU values and MediCare reimbursements.